Common cutting agents in buphedrone
Levamisol is an anthelmintic (used in veterinary medicine against worm infestation), which was formerly also used in human medicine. As an admixture to buphedrone, the substance has become more common in recent years. Various side effects reported in connection with levamisole include: allergic reactions (difficulty breathing, swelling of the lips, tongue, face) and impairment of the central nervous system (e.g. confusion or unconsciousness, extreme fatigue). The most worrying side effect of levamisole is a change in blood count called agranulocytosis. This leads to a reduction in white blood cells, which in turn – due to immune deficiency – can lead to life-threatening infections.
The symptoms that can occur are chills, fever, sepsis, inflammation of the mucous membranes, tongue and throat, infection of the upper respiratory tract, infections in the anal region and superficial death of skin areas. The probability of the development of agranulocytosis increases independently of the ingested dose, with the regularity of levamisole intake. Agranulocytosis most frequently occurs when levamisole is taken continuously for 3-12 months. However, there are also known cases where the disease was diagnosed less than three weeks after the first dose of levamisole.
Agranulocytosis is treated with a suitable antibiotic. If the symptoms described above occur after buphedrone use, we strongly recommend that you consult a doctor, as the disease can only be cured well with medical treatment.
The frequent occurrence of levamisole in buphedrone samples throughout Europe has led to various speculations about the reasons for its addition. Levamisole is converted to Aminorex in the body, which triggers stimulant effects at receptors in the brain. It can be assumed that the effects of Aminorex begin after the buphedrone’s effects subside and therefore Levamisole is used as an extender to prolong the effects of buphedrone.
Local anesthetics such as lidocaine and procaine are added because the taste and local anesthetic effect misleads users to believe that the substance is pure buphedrone when “testing”. There is evidence that the combination of buphedrone with local anaesthetics damages the heart much more than buphedrone alone (cardiotoxicity). The risk of cardiac arrhythmia and heart attack is significantly increased, especially among users with previous cardiovascular diseases.
Phenacetin is an aminophenol derivative, which was used for pain treatment and fever reduction until 1986. Because of its carcinogenic and especially kidney-damaging effect in combination with other pain medication, it was withdrawn from the market. Phenacetin has a slightly euphoric and stimulating effect and is probably used as an extender.